內容目錄

01.托福寫作題型速覽 INTRODUCTION TO TOEFL WRITING QUESTIONS

📝托福寫作2種題型

  • 第1題 (Writing Task 1) :整合寫作題型
  • 第2題 (Writing Task 2) :獨立寫作題型

第1題 整合寫作題 Writing Task 1

本題考生將用約3分鐘閱讀一篇文章,再用約2分鐘聽一段教授講課音檔,閱讀題目後在20分鐘內完成寫作,統整聽力中教授講課內容如何回應閱讀中的論點。

建議練習方向為練習閱讀資訊改寫(換句話說),練習聽力資訊詳實轉述,與練習使用高分模板寫作(推薦克雷英文滿分寫作模板)。

閱讀 (3分鐘) ➤聽⼒ (約2分鐘) ➤閱讀寫作題⽬ ➤寫作 (20分鐘) 建議字數250-300字

第2題 獨立寫作題 Writing Task 2

本題考生將針對題目中問題,在30分鐘內完成寫作,提出自己的論點並以理由與例證說明論點。

建議練習方向為練習快速構思理由,練習論說文的說理式寫作邏輯(推薦克雷英文滿分寫作模板),與練習舉具體事例扣題。

閱讀寫作題⽬➤寫作 (30分鐘)建議字數350-400字

02.托福整合寫作真題 TOEFL WRITING TASK 1 QUESTION

整合寫作真題題目(2023年07月真題)

閱讀題目 Reading Passage

Play behavior is a ubiquitous phenomenon observed in various animal species across the globe. From dogs romping in the park to cats engaging in hunting-like games, the reasons behind these behaviors have long intrigued researchers.

The energy surplus theory posits that animals play as a means of expending their excess energy. Dogs, for instance, are known for their voracious appetites, consuming large amounts of food daily. As a result, they often possess surplus energy that needs an outlet. Play offers a perfect outlet for this pent-up energy, allowing dogs to engage in vigorous physical activities that help them burn calories and maintain a healthy balance in their energetic state. Dog-owners are often amused when their dogs “get the zoomies” and sprint around in circles, but this is actually serving an important biological function.

The instinct practice theory, on the other hand, argues that play serves as a form of practice for essential survival skills and behaviors. For example, the play of cats resembles stalking, pouncing, and simulated killing. Kittens often sneak up behind each other, and cats of all ages enjoy “hunting” toys that their owners give them. Through these playful actions, young cats hone their hunting skills, which will prove critical for their survival later in life. This theory suggests that play is an instinctive mechanism to refine crucial skills necessary for survival and future challenges.

The third theory, the social bonding theory, focuses on the emotional aspect of play and its role in strengthening social bonds among animals. Rats, for instance, produce high-pitched squeaks when they play, which triggers the release of pleasure-inducing chemicals, such as dopamine, in their brains. This chemical reward actually changes the brain over time, reinforcing the desire to engage in playful interactions, promoting social cohesion and reinforcing bonds between individuals within a group.

聽力題目逐字稿 Lecture:

In fact, there are significant shortcomings in each of the theories put forth to explain animal play.

First, the energy surplus theory has a simple, but vital, flaw: almost no animals actually have extra energy that they need to expend. It is the case that some domesticated animals, such as dogs, have plenty of energy to burn off. This is because compared to wild animals, they get much less exercise, and they are fed diets that would not be possible without humans. But wild animals, such as seals, play just as much as dogs do. Seals, however, live in cold environments where food is scarce and, at least in principle, they must only use energy for tasks that are crucial for survival.

Second, there is experimental evidence against the instinct practice theory. Researchers studied two groups of kittens: one group played with toys, while one group was not given toys, thereby preventing them from playing as much. If the instinct practice theory is right, we would expect that the cats which played would be better hunters, because they had practiced the skills required for hunting. However, the research team observed that after the kittens grew into adult cats, all of them had equal hunting proficiency. It is clear that playing did not help develop abilities.

Finally, there are problems with the timing of social bonding theory. While the dopamine associated with play among rats does change brain chemistry, evidence indicates that this is not the only factor. In fact, even after rats reach adulthood and no longer play or make high-pitched squeaks, their brains continue to develop. These changes in the brain still encourage social cohesion and bonding between individuals, but are not caused by play, so this cannot be the reason that young rats engage in playful behavior.

02.托福整合寫作範文 1 TOEFL WRITING TASK 1 SAMPLE ANSWER 1

問題:

Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they respond to the specific points made in the reading passage.(2023年7月真題)

👩‍🦱整合寫作美國老師滿分示範範文- 全文(字數:278字)

The reading passage explores the issue of why animals play, and several theories are provided to explain the phenomenon. Although they seem convincing and substantiated, the lecturer casts doubt on each one.

First, the reading passage suggests that animals play to expend extra energy. This is called the energy surplus theory. However, the lecturer argues that almost no animals have extra energy. She points out that seals, which live in cold environments, cannot afford to waste any energy, and yet they continue to play as much as dogs do. Therefore, the lecturer’s argument disproves its counterpart in the reading.

Second, the reading passage describes the instinct practice theory, which says that animals practice skills by playing. However, the speaker refutes the idea by explaining that an experiment on cats shows that playing does not help them hunt. In the experiment, some kittens were prevented from playing, while others could play normally. When they became adults, both groups could hunt equally well. Therefore, play did not influence hunting ability.

Last but not least, the lecturer identifies the weakness in the social bonding theory. This theory says that play serves the function of strengthening bonds within a group of animals. The speaker convincingly points out that the brains of rats continue to develop in adulthood, after they have stopped playing and squeaking. This means that it cannot be the case that rats play in order to change their brain chemistry and improve social cohesion.

In conclusion, based on the evidence provided above, the professor in the lecture counters every point made in the reading passage. Although the arguments in the reading seem plausible, the speaker disproves them with solid reasoning.

👱‍♀️整合寫作滿分示範範文- 全文(字數:294字)

The reading passage provides various theories to explain the purpose of animal play. However, the listening passage reveals significant shortcomings in each of the three theories presented in the reading passage.

The energy surplus theory suggests that animals play to expend their excess energy, particularly in domesticated animals like dogs. The lecturer highlights a critical flaw: wild animals also engage in play extensively, despite living in harsh environments where conserving energy is crucial for survival. For instance, seals, which face scarcity of food in cold climates, play as much as dogs. This discrepancy challenges the notion that play behavior is driven by an energy surplus.

The instinct practice theory proposes that play serves as a form of practice for essential survival skills and behaviors. However, experimental evidence presented in the listening passage refutes this assumption. Researchers studied two groups of kittens: one group was allowed to play with toys, while the other was deprived of such play. Surprisingly, both groups of cats displayed equal hunting proficiency as they matured into adulthood. This indicates that play does not significantly contribute to skill development.

The social bonding theory suggests that play is essential for fostering social cohesion and reinforcing bonds among animals. While the speaker acknowledges that play does trigger changes in the brain chemistry of rats, she explains that even after reaching adulthood and ceasing to play, rats continue to experience brain development that enhances social bonding. This suggests that the chemical reward associated with play might not be the sole factor contributing to social cohesion and bonding.

In conclusion, the professor refutes the assumptions made in the reading passage regarding the three theories of animal play. While each theory contains elements of truth, they fail to account for the complexities observed in animal behavior.

03.托福獨立寫作真題 TOEFL WRITING TASK 2 QUESTION

學術討論寫作真題 題目(2023年07月真題)

問題:

Your professor is teaching a class on business. Write a post responding to the professor’s question.
In your response, you should do the following.

– Express and support your opinion.
– Make a contribution to the discussion in your own words.
An effective response will contain at least 100 words.

Doctor Garcia:

This week, I want to discuss shopping habits. Some people prefer to shop at small, specialty stores, such as a store that sells only cameras. These businesses can provide more specialized expertise and service. Other people like big superstores. These are usually large chain stores that sell many different products, from cameras to clothes to food. Which type of store do you think is the better choice, specialty shops or superstores? Why?

Kelly (student 1):

Small specialty stores provide better service than larger chains. For example, if you buy a bicycle but then part of the bike breaks, you can take it back to a specialty store and they will fix it right there. If you buy from a superstore, they will send the bike back to the manufacturer for repairs, which can take weeks.

Brian (student 2):

I think it’s great to support local businesses, but there are more benefits to shopping at superstores. Because these large stores can buy huge quantities of products from manufacturers, they can sell more cheaply to consumers. Also, it is very convenient for shoppers to buy everything they need from one store.

👩‍🦱學術討論寫作滿分示範範文1(字數:127字)

I agree with Kelly that specialty stores are a better choice for consumers. This is because it is better for the environment.

Giant chain stores such as Walmart are typically massive concrete structures with huge parking lots. The production of concrete is one of the largest sources of CO2 gas, which contributes to global warming. Meanwhile, parking lots do not absorb rain water, which means that there is more runoff flowing into rivers. This runoff water often carries oil and litter with it. In contrast, specialty stores are often small buildings made from more environmentally friendly materials such as wood or brick. They typically lack the enormous parking areas that lead to runoff problems.

Therefore, shopping at small specialty stores is a better choice for the environment.

學術討論寫作滿分示範範文2(字數:150字)

I agree with Brian that it’s better to shop at large superstores. This is because of the convenience that the store provides for shoppers.

In modern times, people are very busy. With most adults working full time jobs and caring for children, people no longer have time to spend a whole afternoon buying all of the goods they need to maintain their lifestyles. Thankfully, superstores provide the opportunity to complete a week’s shopping all in one place. These businesses sell products ranging from video games to groceries. Customers can depend on them to be fully stocked with all the necessities of daily life and goods that only need to be bought occasionally. To give a specific example, one time I needed to buy the week’s groceries but also needed to purchase a snow shovel.

Thus, the convenience that superstores bring to the lives of consumers make them the better option.

學術討論寫作真題 2 題目(2023年07月真題)

問題:

Your professor is teaching a class on sociology. Write a post responding to the professor’s question.
In your response, you should do the following.

– Express and support your opinion.
– Make a contribution to the discussion in your own words.
An effective response will contain at least 100 words.

Doctor Achebe:

Let’s think about population trends in urban and rural areas (villages). Living in urban areas can be expensive; nonetheless, when they have a choice of where to live, people in some countries do not wish to live in rural areas even if the cost of living there is lower. If governments of some countries want to attract more people to live in rural areas or villages, what is the best strategy or approach that governments can use? Why?

Claire (student 1):

I would live in a rural area if the government gave more financial help to farmers. Although it may cost very little to live in a rural area, it costs a lot to begin a career in agriculture. If I had financial help, I would start my own farm and be happy to live in a rural area.

Kelly (student 2):

In my country, urban centers are great places to live because you can access shops, restaurants, and museums. If the government of my country wanted to attract me to live in a rural area, the area would first have to attract more businesses focused on entertainment and culture than most rural areas have now.

學術討論寫作滿分示範範文1(字數:150字)

Claire mentioned that financial aid to farmers can encourage more people to live in rural areas. However, I believe that the best strategy for governments to draw people to the countryside is to provide the same public services as cities, such as access to high-speed internet.

Many people rely on the internet for all kinds of activities like talking to their friends and browsing social media. Furthermore, many people work from home. However, in rural areas, internet connections are not always fast and reliable. If a government wishes to attract people to the countryside, it must invest in internet infrastructure, such as fiber optic cables and 5G towers. Citizens will be more willing to move to rural areas when they feel that their online presence can be maintained in small villages.

Thus, investing in internet infrastructure is the best strategy to attract people to move from cities to rural areas.

學術討論寫作滿分示範範文2(字數:146字)

Kelly mentioned that developing entertainment and cultural opportunities in the countryside would help draw people there from cities. However, I think the best way to attract people to rural areas is to invest in primary and secondary education.

In my country, funding for education is primarily based on property taxes. This means that areas with lower tax incomes, such as rural areas, cannot afford to build new school buildings or increase teacher pay. As a result, rural schools have a reputation of outdated technology, dilapidated buildings and underpaid teachers. Most people care deeply about which schools their children attend, so if governments invest in rural education, it may provide an incentive for families to move to the countryside.

Therefore, the best way for governments to draw people out of cities and into rural areas is to devote a greater part of their budget to rural schools.

學術討論寫作真題 3 題目(2023年07月真題)

問題:

Your professor is teaching a class on education. Write a post responding to the professor’s question.
In your response, you should do the following.

– Express and support your opinion.
– Make a contribution to the discussion in your own words.
An effective response will contain at least 100 words.

Doctor Gupta:

This week, I want you to discuss assessment criteria. Some schoolteachers give high grades (marks) only to those students who perform well on their homework assignments and tests. Other teachers, however, may give high grades to students who have worked very hard on their assignments but have not performed so well. Which approach do you think is better: Giving grades based only on performance, or grading students not just on performance but also on their effort?

Kelly (student 1):

I think grades should be based on performance only. It’s a matter of fairness. I’d be really upset if another student got nearly the same grade that I did when I turned in work that was almost perfect and the other student’s work had incorrect answers or unclear ideas. It wouldn’t matter to me if they worked harder.

Paul (student 2):

Sure, evaluation should mainly be based upon the student’s performance, but hard work should count for something. A student who works hard, even when the final grade isn’t the highest in the class, builds character, which will benefit the student later in life when they go to university or apply for a job.

學術討論寫作滿分示範範文1(字數:149字)

I agree with Kelly that grades should only be based on a student’s performance on assignments and tests. This is because the purpose of grades is to reflect mastery of course material.

Every academic course is designed to teach students certain skills or content, and grades reflect whether or not students have mastered them. For example, in a math class, there might be certain concepts, proofs or equations that students are expected to learn. A high grade in the class should indicate that a student is ready to proceed to the next level. If grades are influenced by other factors , they might be misleading. In such a situation, students who are not ready for the next class may move up anyway. It will result in more confusion for the students who haven’t mastered the basics.

Thus, grades should be determined only by objective measures of performance, not on effort.

學術討論寫作滿分示範範文2(字數:138字)

I agree with Paul that student effort should be included when calculating grades. However, my reasoning is slightly different. I think including effort ensures fairness for all students by acknowledging that they face different challenges.

Students come from diverse backgrounds and different socioeconomic statuses, which may affect their ability to absorb information and perform well on tests. Some students, due to factors outside their control, are not naturally good at taking tests and may have more difficulty learning new things. They should not be penalized for outside factors, and should be rewarded for putting forth strong effort. For example, if a student cannot afford private tutoring but consistently visits a teacher outside class, their effort should be recognized in their final grade.

Thus, student effort should be calculated into grades because it is more fair to disadvantaged students.

04.托福口說題型速覽 INTRODUCTION TO TOEFL SPEAKING QUESTIONS

👄托福口說部分總共有4題

  • 第1題➤獨立題型 ➤個人意見題
  • 第2題➤整合題型 ➤校園情境題
  • 第3題➤整合題型 ➤觀念例子題
  • 第4題➤整合題型 ➤學術講課題

第1題 Speaking Task 1

題目中會提供兩個立場論述,請你擇一立場附理由解釋你的觀點,或是提供單一論點,請你附理由解釋自己同意或不同意。

看到題目➤準備 (15秒)➤口說回答 (45秒)

第2題 Speaking Task 2

題目中將提供一篇閱讀篇章(學生陳情信、校園公告等),後播放一段聽力音檔,內容主要為2位學生的對話。閱讀以及聽完之後,考生須統整閱讀與聽力資訊作口說摘要。

閱讀 (45-50秒)➤聽力 (約1-1.5分)➤準備 (30秒)➤口說回答 (60秒)

第3題 Speaking Task 3

題目中將提供一篇閱讀篇章,內容主要為學術文章,後播放一段聽力音檔,內容主要為教授講課片對。閱讀以及聽完之後,考生須統整閱讀與聽力資訊作口說摘要。

閱讀 (45-50秒)➤聽力 (約1-1.5分)➤準備 (30秒)➤口說回答 (60秒)

第4題 Speaking Task 4

題目將播放一篇聽力音檔,內容主要為學術講課,聽完後考生須作口說摘要。

聽力 (約1-2分)➤準備 (20秒)➤口說回答 (60秒)

05.托福口說第1題真題與示範答案 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 1 QUESTION, SAMPLE ANSWER

問題:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Young children under the age of 16 should be required to go to school.
Give specific details and examples to support your opinion. (2023年7月真題)

🎙口說第1題 示範答案音檔

口說第1題 示範答案 逐字稿

I agree that children under the age of 16 should be required to go to school for the following two reasons. First, I think it’s good for their social development. School provides an environment for young people to learn how to interact with each other in a healthy way. For instance, many young people become interested in romantic partners at this age, 15, 16, and school provides a safe place for that. Second, I think that attending school when you’re young helps keep people out of trouble. Many people who drop out of school before the age of 16 get involved with gangs or illegal drugs, and so requiring these students to attend school will prevent that. These are the reasons I feel this way.

06.托福口說第2題真題 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 2 QUESTION

口說第2題 真題(2023年07月真題)

閱讀題目 Announcement

Rent Sports Facilities

Our university has outstanding sports facilities, including basketball courts, a running track and a weight room. I believe that the school should start renting out these facilities to local community members. For example, they could pay a small fee and use the basketball courts for an hour. This would give people in the community more opportunities to exercise, so it would promote good health for local people. In addition, the money paid to rent the facilities would be a source of income from the school. This could help our university’s budget problem.
Sincerely,
Will Temple

聽力題目逐字稿 Conversation

Listen to a conversation between two students

A: Hey, did you see Will’s letter?

B: Yeah. I don’t think it’s a great idea, though.

A: Oh really? Why’s that?

B: I don’t think he’s considered what this would mean for the staff who work at our sports facilities. Whenever someone uses them, a staff member has to work.

A: So if community members use the facilities, the staff will have to work more?

B: Exactly. This suggestion would just add to their workload, which is already significant. They’ve had trouble hiring people lately, so many of the employees are currently working overtime every week. In fact, the added work hours might offset any financial gains from the rent.

A: That makes sense to me.

B: Well, there’s another thing, too. The reason we have these great facilities in the first place is so that students can use them. But if people outside the school can reserve them, that could cause problems.

A: You mean, they might not be as available for students to use?

B: Yeah! Right now, any student can run on the track anytime they want. But if it’s reserved for other people, it’ll become hard for students to exercise at the times most convenient for them. Students are already really busy, so they can’t just reschedule their workout based on someone else’s reservation.

A: I see what you mean.

06.托福口說第2題示範答案 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 2 SAMPLE ANSWER

問題:

The woman expresses her opinion of the campus announcement. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion. (2023年7月真題)

🎙口說第2題 示範答案音檔

口說第2題 示範答案逐字稿

The letter that the student wrote suggests that the school should start renting sports facilities to members of the community. The student in the listening disagrees for the following two reasons. First, she says that it will add extra work to the staff of the sports facilities. The university is already having difficulty hiring enough people to work those facilities. Adding more usage by community members. would cause these already overworked employees to have to work even more. And, in fact, the added work hours could offset income from the reservations. Second, she says that allowing community members to reserve sports facilities could prevent students from using them. For instance, if a student wants to run at the track, but it’s reserved for someone else, they will have to find another time, which may be difficult because most students are very busy and can’t just easily reschedule their workouts. That’s why she feels this way.

07.托福口說第3題真題 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 3 QUESTION

閱讀題目 Reading passage

Priming
People like to think that they are objective about how they perceive and respond to the world around them, but in fact there are a number of factors that influence the way we understand external situations. Researchers have found that earlier experiences influence a person’s thoughts, perceptions and behaviors. This phenomenon, called priming in psychology, reveals how human thought is interconnected and that the brain organizes information based on past experiences. It can impact various aspects of human behavior, including memory retrieval, decision-making, and even emotional responses, often without individuals being fully aware of its influence.

聽力題目逐字稿 Lecture

All right, let’s look at an everyday scenario that will help us understand it better. Imagine three people sitting on a bus. One of them is diligently typing away on a laptop, absorbed in their work. Now, let’s focus on the other two individuals and what they’re thinking about when they look at the person on the laptop.

The first person just bumped into some old college friends on the way to the bus stop. As they chatted, she thought about memories of her busy and stressful college life. Back then, she was constantly rushing to complete assignments and write term papers. Now, when she spots the laptop user, her mind connects the situation with her college days. She instantly assumes that the laptop user must be stressed out, possibly working on a last-minute essay or an important project.

Now, let’s shift our attention to the second person. Just before boarding the bus, he strolled through a park, taking in the beauty of nature around him. And over the past week, he has been reading a book of poetry about forests and wilderness. On the bus, as he observes the laptop user, his mind links the act of writing to his recent experience of reading poetry and being surrounded by nature’s beauty. This leads him to imagine that this person is writing something creative and poetic, like a heartfelt poem inspired by nature.

07.托福口說第3題示範答案 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 3 SAMPLE ANSWER

問題:

Using the example provided in the lecture, explain the concept of priming.(2023年7月真題)

🎙口說第3題 示範答案音檔

口說第3題 示範答案逐字稿

The reading passage discusses the concept of priming. This is when earlier experiences influence a person’s thoughts, perceptions, and behavior. The professor in the lecture gives a perfect example. The example is about three people riding a bus, one of whom is on a laptop. And the others are thinking about what he might be writing. The first of them is thinking about college. She recently saw some college friends, and so she’s been thinking about the stress that she experienced when she was a student. When she sees the person writing on the laptop, she thinks that they might be writing an essay or stressed out about a project. The second person recently walked in a park and has been reading poetry about nature. So when he sees the person writing on the laptop, he thinks that they might be engaged in creative work, such as writing a poem about the natural world. In both cases, the people’s perceptions are influenced by their recent experiences.

08.托福口說第4題真題 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 4 QUESTION

聽力題目逐字稿 Listening

Let’s dive into the important topic of shifting to cleaner energy sources, like solar power, and explore the potential downsides that come along. In recent times, there’s been a global trend towards reducing our reliance on fossil fuels, such as gas. Of course, this transition is vital for our planet’s health, but it’s also important to understand the challenges that arise when we try to use clean energy on a larger scale.

First off, we must consider the impact on our ecosystems. Renewable energy may have negative impacts on plant and animal populations. For example, as we embrace solar energy more widely, we need a lot of space for solar farms, which consist of row after row of solar panels. In order to make solar a viable energy source for, say, a medium-sized town, the land area covered by solar panels has to be enormous. The problem is that the land we use for these solar farms is also home to various animal species. Converting wilderness areas into solar farms could lead to these animals losing their homes, potentially endangering their survival.

Second, the path to renewable energy sometimes requires the intensive use of other resources. Let’s take the example of solar panels again. Many people support the construction of solar farms in desert regions, in order to avoid some of the negative impacts on animals that we just mentioned. While it seems like a good idea to capture sunlight in the desert, there’s an unexpected challenge—overheating. In these dry places, solar panels tend to get too hot, which affects their efficiency and lifespan. There is an easy way to cool them, but cooling systems require quite a bit of water, and that’s a problem because water is already scarce in many areas. This could prevent the people and animals that live nearby from getting adequate water.

08.托福口說第4題示範答案 TOEFL SPEAKING TASK 4 SAMPLE ANSWER

問題:

Using points and examples from the lecture, explain two challenges that arise with the adoption of clean energy.(2023年7月真題)

🎙口說第4題 示範答案音檔

口說第4題 示範答案逐字稿

The lecture discusses two downsides to the shift to clean energy sources. The professor first describes the impact on ecosystems. She explains that solar farms require tons of space for row after row of solar panels. Often this space is taken from wilderness areas that had previously been home to animals. Second, she explains that the shift to clean energy often requires the use of other resources. Some people support building solar farms in the desert in order to have less impact on ecosystems. However, one problem that arises is overheating, which hurts the efficiency and lifespan of solar panels. Although they can easily be cooled, many cooling systems require significant amounts of water, which is already a scarce resource in the desert regions.


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